Tramadol Generic is an opioid synthetic analgesic, which has effects on the central nervous system and action on the spinal cord (promotes the opening of K + and Ca2 + channels, causes hyperpolarization of membranes and inhibits the conduction of painful impulses), Tramadol Generic enhances the effect of sedative drugs, activates opiate receptors (μ-, Δ-, κ-) on pre- and postsynaptic membranes of afferent fibers of the nociceptive system in the brain and gastrointestinal tract.
Tramadol Generic slows down the destruction of catecholamines, stabilizes their concentration in the central nervous system. Tramadol is a racemic mixture of 2 enantiomers - right-turn (+) and left-turn (-), each of which exhibits a different affinity for the other receptor. (+) Tramadol is a selective mu-opiate receptor agonist and also selectively inhibits the neuronal reuptake of serotonin. (-) Tramadol inhibits the neuronal reuptake of norepinephrine. Mono-O-desmethyltramadol (M1 metabolite) also selectively stimulates mu-opiate receptors. The affinity of tramadol to opioid receptors is 10-fold lower than that of codeine, and 6,000-fold lower than that of morphine. Analgesic action of Tramadol Generic is 5-10 times weaker than that of morphine (therefore Tramadol Generic. Is taken in higher doses)
Analgesic action of Tramadol Generic is caused by a decrease in nociceptive activity and an increase in the body's antinociceptive systems. In therapeutic doses Tramadol Generic slightly affects the hemodynamics and breathing, does not change the pressure in the pulmonary artery, slightly slows intestinal peristalsis, without causing constipation. Tramadol Generic has some sedation effect and surpresses coughing reflex as Tramadol Generic suppresses the respiratory center, excites the induction zone of the vomiting center, the nucleus of the oculomotors nerve. With prolonged use, tolerance to Tramadol Generic may develop. Analgesic action develops in 15-30 minutes after ingestion and lasts up to 6 hours.
Pharmacological action of Tramadol Generic is analgesic (opioid). Tramadol Generic is issued in many forms, from rectal suppositoriums to oral drops solution, but the two most popular forms are tablets and solution for injection.
Tramadol Generic tablets
Are taken inside. The tablet should be swallowed without chewing, washing with a small amount of liquid, or pre-dissolving in 1/2 cup of water, regardless of food intake. The drug is used as directed by a doctor, the dosing regimen is selected individually depending on the severity of the pain syndrome and the sensitivity of the patient.
In the absence of other prescriptions, the drug should be used in the following doses: adults and adolescents over 14 years (more than 25 kg) - 50 mg, if necessary, after 30-60 minutes, you can take another tablet; in severe pain, a single dose can be 100 mg. Depending on the intensity of the pain syndrome, the analgesic action is usually maintained for 4-6 hours.
The daily dose of Tramadol Generic should not exceed 400 mg.
Higher doses may be used to treat pain in cancer and severe post-operative pain.
Special patient groups
Older age. In elderly patients (over 75 years of age), due to the possibility of delayed withdrawal, the interval between administration of Tramadol Generic may be increased in accordance with individual characteristics.
Renal and / or liver dysfunction. In patients with kidney and / or liver disease, Tramadol Generic may last longer. With Cl creatinine <30 ml / min and / or patients with hepatic insufficiency, an interval of 12 hours is required between taking regular doses of Tramadol Generic. Increasing the interval between single dose administration is possible. Tramadol Generic should not be used in patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine Cl <10 ml / min) or hepatic impairment.
The drug should not be used over a period justified from a therapeutic point of view. With long-term use of tramadol, due to the intensity or etiology of the pain syndrome, periodic monitoring (if necessary - with breaks in the administration of the drug) is needed to determine the need for further therapy and dose optimization.
Tramadol Generic in solution for injection
Intravenous injection of Tramadol Generic (injected slowly, no more than 1 ml / min, which corresponds to 50 mg of tramadol). Water for injection, saline and 5% dextrose solution can be used to dilute the drug.
The recommended doses below are indicative. In practice, it is necessary to choose the minimum analgesically effective doses. The duration of treatment with the drug is determined individually. It should not be used longer than the therapeutic justified period.
Adults and adolescents from 14 years of age: single dose - 50-100 mg, re-introduction of Tramadol Generic in 4-6 hours is possible. The maximum daily dose of Tramadol Generic is 400 mg.
Children from 1 year to 14 years: single dose 1-2 mg / kg, maximum daily dose 8 mg / kg.
Tramadol Generic is extremely popular and is one of the top prescribed analgesics in the world till today, even though it has been invented back in 1964.
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