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Phentermine (phentermine hydrochloride)
The action of Phentermine is based on the release of norepinephrine and, due to this, appetite suppression.
Being an isomer of methamphetamine, phentermine refers to stimulants and acts on brain neurotransmitters.
According to the World Gastroenterological Organization:
Randomized trials have shown that with phentermine increases the patient’s weight loss by 3-4% compared with placebo, adrenergic stimulants increase the release of norepinephrine in certain areas of the brain, which leads to a decrease in food intake.
Evidence and research
There is only limited evidence on the effectiveness and safety of phentermine.
Only one prospective randomized controlled trial lasting more than 6 months is known, in which an assessment was made of the effectiveness of phentermine in relation to weight loss. This study, published in 1968, involved 108 obese women whose therapy consisted of a low-calorie diet (1000 kcal / day) and either daily phentermine or phentermine and placebo (dummy) alternating after a month, or only placebo in for 36 weeks. 64 patients participating in the study reduced their weight by 13% from the original.
Phentermine (phentermine, duromin, duromin, ionamine, ionamin, durominc, adipex) - phenethylamine, a sympathomimetic drug, an amphetamine derivative, is mainly used to suppress appetite. Phentermine suppresses appetite by acting on the central nervous system like amphetamine. Phentermine is sold both in fast-acting form (adipex) and in the form of pills with prolonged action (ionamin, duromine in Australia and New Zealand).
It is necessary to carefully monitor blood pressure in patients with a tendency to hypertension or receiving antihypertensive therapy.
There is a potential (albeit low) risk of developing dependence on phentermine (it is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency, USA, as a substance controlled under Scheme IV).
Phentermine is approved for short-term use only
The reason for that is the development of tolerance. The organism adapts and the dosages have to be increased to receive same effect. Therefore, it is better to take Phentermine in short courses.
Phentermine is a sympathomimetic, that exhibits the same activity in relation to weight loss both with continuous daily use, and with the appointment of short courses. In this case, weight loss is from 5% to 15% from the original in 60% of patients. Those taking phentermine in combination with a hypocaloric diet achieve more significant weight loss compared with patients on a hypocaloric diet only. Weight loss with phentermine is usually more than 0.5 kg per week compared with placebo.
Phentermine therapy is strictly limited, and is prescribed to patients with a body mass index (BMI)> 30 or to patients with a BMI> 27 who have risk factors.
Phentermine side effects
As a general rule, the drug is relatively well tolerated, but can cause some side effects, since it releases catecholamines.
The most common side effects of phentermine include nervousness, dry mouth, constipation, and arterial hypertension. In this regard, the administration of phentermine is not recommended for patients with arterial hypertension and concomitant cardiovascular pathology.
Also, with caution, phentermine should be prescribed to patients with anxiety and depressive states, since it can aggravate their manifestations. The structure and pharmacological effects of phentermine are close to amphetamine. Phentermine is not prescribed to patients with a history of drug dependence.
Phentermine is used in the treatment of obesity and maintaining body weight only as part of complex therapy, involving a change in lifestyle, including dietary restrictions and / or physical activity. The duration of therapy is not recommended to be long and is limited to several weeks.
Phentermine is taken orally at 15, 30 or 37.5 mg per day.
Symptoms of acute overdose of phentermine are the following conditions: anxiety, hyperreflexia, tremor, confusion, aggressiveness, rapid breathing, hallucinations, panic conditions.
Help with acute intoxication phentermine is mainly symptomatic and includes sedation with barbiturates.
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